Main Article Content

Abstract

Abstrak
Dewasa ini, kegiatan eksploitasi sumber daya ikan secara berlebihan menjadi salah satu ancaman terbesar bagi pengelolaan perikanan dunia. Perkembangan teknologi di bidang industri perikanan menjadi salah satu pemicunya. Oleh sebab itu, menjadi sangat relevan untuk mengetahui bagaimana Hukum Internasional mengatur mengenai pengelolaan perikanan ini sehingga aturan Hukum Internasional ini dapat digunakan sebagai pedoman bagi negara dalam mengelola perikanan di tingkat nasional. Artikel ini ditulis secara normatif. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder yang dikumpulkan melalui studi pustaka, terdiri dari bahan hukum primer, bahan hukum sekunder, dan bahan hukum tersier yang terkait dengan kelautan, perikanan dan pengelolaannya, serta konservasi laut. Teknik validasi data sekunder menggunakan metode kritik sumber, teknik analisis data menggunakan penafsiran hukum. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pengaturan pengelolaan perikanan oleh Hukum Internasional mengalami perkembangan dari masa ke masa seiring dengan perkembangan manusia. Kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan, perkembangan teknologi, serta semakin besarnya kepentingan manusia terhadap sumber daya yang ada di laut merupakan beberapa faktor yang menjadikan pengelolaan perikanan perlu diatur bersama bangsa-bangsa di dunia dalam rangka menciptakan keadilan melalui instrumen hukum internasional, baik yang bersifat hard law maupun soft law.
Kata kunci: hard law; hukum internasional; perikanan berkelanjutan; pengelolaan perikanan; soft law.


Abstract
Nowadays, overfishing is one of the most serious threats to the global fisheries management. Technological advances in fishing industry have became one of its trigger. Therefore, it is extremely relevant to examine to what extent International Law have regulated this matter so that its rules could be used as a guidelines for countries to manage the fisheries at national level. It is a normative legal research. The data were secondary ones that collected through study literature. Secondary data consisted of primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials which related to marine fisheries and its management, as well as marine conservation. The techniques of secondary data validation used source criticism method, while data analysis techniques used legal interpretation. The results showed that fishing activity is one of the oldest human activities. Fisheries management by International Law has developed from time to time in line with the development of man himself. The advances of science, technological developments, as well as the growing human interest against existing resources in the sea are several factors that make fishery management need to be arranged with the nations of the world in order to create justice through international legal instruments, both hard law and soft law.
Keywords: fisheries management, hard law, international law, soft law, sustainable fisheries.

Keywords

hard law hukum internasional perikanan berkelanjutan pengelolaan perikanan soft law

Article Details

References

  1. Buku
  2. Burke, William T., “Comtemporary Legal Problems in Ocean Development”, dalam Toward A Better Use of the Ocean, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Stockholm, 1969.
  3. Christy Jr, F.T., and A. Scott, The Common Wealth in Ocean Fisheries: Some Problems of Growth and Economic Allocation, Johns Hopkins Press Inc, Baltimore, 1965.
  4. Cochrane, Kavern L. and S.M. Garcia (Eds), A Fishery Manager’s Guidebook, 2nd Edition, FAO and Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, New Jersey, 2009.
  5. FAO, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Opportunities and Challenges, FAO, Rome, 2014.
  6. Grotius, Hugo, The Freedom of the Sea, Oxford University Press, New York, 1916.
  7. Hey, Ellen, “The Fisheries Provisions of the LOS Convention” dalam Ellen Hey (Ed), Development in International Fisheries Law, Kluwer Law International, The Hague Netherland, 1999.
  8. Idyll, C.P., “Coastal and Marine Waters”, dalam H. Clepper (Ed), Origins of American Conservation, Ronald Press Co., New York, 1966.
  9. Johnstone, J., British Fisheries: Their Administration and Their Problem: A Short Account of the Origin and Growth of British Sea – Fishery Authorities and Regulations, William and Norgate, London, 1905.
  10. Nettle, R. The Salmon Fisheries of the St. Lawrence, John Lovell, Montreal, 1857.
  11. Emmy Latifah, Perkembangan Pengaturan Pengelolaan Perikanan Berkelanjutan Berdasarkan Hukum Internasional, 138
  12. Soerjono Soekanto dan Sri Mamudji, Penelitian Hukum Normatif Suatu Tinjauan Singkat, Rajawali Press, 2007.
  13. Stokke, Olav Schram, “The Loophole of the Barents Sea Fisheries Regime”, dalam Olav Schram Stokke (Ed), Governing High Seas Fisheries: The Interplay of Global and Regional Regimes, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
  14. Jurnal
  15. Allison, Edward H., “Big Laws, Small Catches: Global Ocean Governance and the Fisheries Crisis”, J. Int. Dev. 13, 933-950 (2001).
  16. Gordon, H.S., “The Economic Theory of a Common Property Resources: the Fisheries. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 62, No. 2 (April 1954) p. 124-142.
  17. Jannot, Jason E., and Daniel S. Holland, “Identifying Ecological and Fishing Drivers of Bycatch in a U.S. Groundfish Fishery”, Ecological, Vol. 23, Issue 7, Oct 2013, p. 1645-1658.
  18. Juda, Lawrence, “International Law and Ocean Use Management”, dalam H.D. Smith (Ed), Ocean Management and Policies Series, Loutledge, London, 1996.
  19. McDougal, Myres S. and William T. Burke, The Public Order of the Oceans, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1962.
  20. Pikitch, E.K., et al, “Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management”, Science, Vol. 305, 2004.
  21. R., Fredheim, “Ocean Governance at the Millennium: Where We Have Been-Where We Should Go”, Ocean & Coastal Management 42: 749-765 (1999).
  22. R., Friedheim, “Designing the Ocean Policy Future: An Essay on How I Am Going to Do That”, Ocean Development & International Law 31: 183-195 (2000).
  23. Sissenwine, Michael M., Pamela M. Mace, and Hans J. Lassen, “Preventing Overfishing: Evolving Approaches and Emerging Challenges”, ICES J. Mar. Sci.(2014), 71:2, p. 153-156.
  24. Proceeding/Makalah
  25. Elis Hertini dan Nurul Gusriani, “Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) pada Perikanan dengan struktur Prey-Predator”, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir, dengan tema Pemanfaatan Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir serta Peranan MIPA di bidang Kesehatan, Lingkungan dan Industri untuk Pembangunan Berkelanjutan, PTNBR-BATAN, Bandung, 4 Juli 2013.
  26. Fleischer, C.A., “The Exclusive Economic Zone under the Convention Regime and In State Practice”, 17 Law of the Sea Institute Proceeding, 1984, hlm. 253. Sup. No. 9 (A/359) 42-43.
  27. Nielsen, Larry A., “The Evolution of Fisheries Management Philosophy”, MFR Paper 1226, December 1976.
  28. Robert Beckman and Tara Davenport, “The EEZ Regime: Reflections after 30 Years”, Proceedings from the 2012 LOSI-KIOST Conference on Securing the Ocean for the Next Generation, held at Seoul, Korea, May 2012.
  29. Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum, Volume 1, Nomor 2, Maret 2017, 139
  30. Konvensi Internasional
  31. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 1958.
  32. Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982.
  33. Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas 1993 (FAO Compliance Agreement)
  34. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 1994.
  35. Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks 1995 (UN Fish Stocks Agreement).
  36. FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries 1995.
  37. Dokumen
  38. FAO, Globefish Highlight 2015, Globefish Databank FAO, 2015.
  39. The Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel, Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1999.