THE LAW APPROVING TREATIES (“UU PENGESAHAN”): WHAT DOES IT SIGNIFY?

Damos Dumoli Agusman

Sari


ABSTRACT

The provisions in Article 11 of the Constitution of 1945 and Laws of the International Treaties generally requires the "consent" of the House of Representatives (DPR) in the making and ratification of the treaty. The difference between the two is that the rules referred to in Article 11 of Constitution of 1945 does not specifically mention the form of approval, while the Laws of the International Treaties requires that the ratification of a treaty is done by Act or by Presidential Decree. The big difference in the process of ratification of the treaty to be applied in the national legal system of Indonesia, has been controversial, both among academics and practitioners, such as the theory of monism-dualism on International Law and National Law, the status of an international treaty into national laws of Indonesia, and the implementation of international agreements in Indonesia. This article is intended to explain the process of ratification of an international agreement, differences that occur, as well as the ratification of the treaty practice lasted this long.

Keywords: international law, legislation, monism-dualism, treaties, ratification

 

ABSTRAK

Ketentuan dalam Pasal 11 Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 dan Undang-Undang Perjanjian Internasional secara umum mensyaratkan adanya “persetujuan” dari Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) dalam pembuatan maupun pengesahan perjanjian internasional. Perbedaan antara kedua aturan dimaksud adalah bahwa dalam Pasal 11 Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 tidak secara khusus mensyaratkan bentuk dari persetujuan dimaksud, sementara Undang-Undang Perjanjian Internasional mensyaratkan bahwa pengesahan perjanjian internasional dilakukan dengan Undang-Undang atau Keputusan Presiden. Adanya perbedaan tentang proses pengesahan perjanjian internasional untuk dapat diberlakukan dalam sistem hukum nasional Indonesia, akhirnya telah menimbulkan perdebatan, baik di kalangan akademisi maupun praktisi, antara lain teori monisme-dualisme tentang Hukum Internasional dan Hukum Nasional, status suatu perjanjian internasional dalam hukum nasional Indonesia, maupun implementasi dari perjanjian internasional di Indonesia. Artikel ini dimaksudkan untuk menjelaskan proses pengesahan suatu perjanjian internasional, perbedaan pandangan yang terjadi, serta praktik pengesahan perjanjian internasional yang berlangsung selama ini.

Kata Kunci: hukum internasional, legislasi, monisme-dualisme, perjanjian internasional, ratifikasi

 

DOI: 10.23920/jbmh.v1n1.8


Kata Kunci


international law, legislation, monism-dualism, treaties, ratification

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


BOOKS:

Agusman, Damos Dumoli. Hukum Perjanjian Internasional, Kajian Teori dan Praktik (Law of Treaties, Study of Theory and Practice). Bandung: Refika Aditama, 2010.

Asshiddiqie, Jimly. Pokok-Pokok Hukum Tata Negara Indonesia: Pasca Reformasi (Principles of Indonesian Constitutional Law). Jakarta: Bhuana Ilmu Populer, 2007.

Asshiddiqie, Jimly. Pengantar Ilmu Hukum Tata Negara (Introduction to Constitutional Law). Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2010.

Attamimi, Hamid S. Peranan Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia dalam Penyelenggaraan Negara (The Role of Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia in State Administration). Jakarta: Fakultas Pascasarjana, Universitas Indonesia, 1990.

Gautama, Sudargo. Indonesia dan Arbitrase Internasional (Indonesia and International Arbitration). Bandung: Alumni, 1986.

Gautama, Sudargo. Hukum Dagang dan Arbitrase Internasional (Trade Law and International Arbitration). Bandung: Citra Aditya Bakti, 1991.

Harahap, M. Yahya. Arbitrase (Arbitration). Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2006.

Indrati S, Maria Farida. Ilmu Perundang-Undangan: Jenis, Fungsi, dan Materi Muatan (Theories on Legislation: Type, Function and Substance). Yogyakarta: Kanisus, 2007.

Ko, Swan Sik. The Indonesian Law of Treaties 1945-1990. Dordrecht, Boston, Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.

Utrecht, E. Pengantar dalam Hukum Indonesia (Introduction to the Law of Indonesia). Djakarta: Ichtiar, 1961.

Yamin, Muhammad. Naskah Persiapan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 (Preparatory Documents to the Constitution of 1945)”. Vol. III. Djakarta: Jajasan Prapantja, 1960.

ARTICLES IN BOOKS

Natabaya, H.A.S. “Lembaga Presiden dan Pembuatan Perjanjian Internasional (President and Treaty-Making). In Buku 70 Tahun Prof. DR. Harun Alrasid, edited by A. Muhammad Asrun and Hendra Nurtjahjo, 180-197. Jakarta: Committe of 70 Years Remembrance of Prof. Dr. Harun Alrasid, Law Center of Constitutional Law University of Indonesia, 2000.

ARTICLES IN JOURNALS/PERIODICALS

Abdullah, Abdul Gani. “Pengantar Memahami Undang-Undang tentang Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan (Introduction to the Law on Legislation Making)” 1 Jurnal Legislasi Indonesia (Journal of Indonesian Legislation). 2 (2004): 1-44.

Attamimi, Hamid S. “Pengesahan/Ratifikasi Perjanjian Internasional ‘Diatur’ oleh Konvensi Ketatanegaraan (Ratification of Treaties under Constitutional Convention)“ 12 Majalah Hukum dan Pembangunan (Law and Development Magazine). 4 (1982): 339-348.

Attamimi, Hamid S. “Sekali Lagi tentang Pengertian Keuangan Negara (Another Definition of State Finance)” 12 Majalah Hukum dan Pembangunan (Law and Development Magazine). 1 (1982): 35-41.

Manan, Bagir. “Kekuasaan Presiden untuk Membuat, Memasuki, dan Mengesahkan Perjanjian/Persetujuan Internasional (Presidential Powers to Draft, Enter and Ratify Treaties)” 3-4 Majalah Padjadjaran (Padjadjaran Magazine). 1986: 23-24.

Manan, Bagir. “Akibat Hukum di Dalam Negeri Pengesahan Perjanjian Internasional (Tinjauan Hukum Tata Negara) (Domestic Legal Consequences of Ratification of Treaties: a Constitutional Law Review).” Focus Group Discussion, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia – Law Faculty of University of Padjadjaran Bandung. 2008.

CONFERENCE AND WORKING PAPERS

Atmasasmita, Romly. Pengaruh Hukum Internasional terhadap Proses Legislasi (The Influence of International Law on Legislative Process). Working paper delivered at National Legislation Seminar, Legislature of Indonesian House of Representatives. 2008.

Hadhyono, Suparti. Praktek Penerapan Perjanjian Internasional dalam Putusan Hakim (Treaties under National Court). Focus Group Discussion, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia-Law Faculty of University of Airlangga Surabaya. 2008.

Radhie, T.M. Konvensi New York tentang Pengakuan Pelaksanaan Putusan Arbitrase Luar Negeri (New York Convention on Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards). Working paper delivered at Dispute Resolution through Arbitration Seminar, Jakarta: 1990.

Sulistianingsih, Lies. Perjanjian Internasional Dalam Sistem Perundang–Undangan Nasional (Treaties under National Laws). 2010 (non-published).

INTERNET SOURCES

Jimly Asshiddiqie, , [last visited on 9 April 2013].

Government official Website at , [last visited on 9 April 2013].

TABLE OF CONSTITUTIONS/LEGISLATIONS

Constituton of 1945.

Law No. 19 of 1952 concerning Approval to Friendly Treaty between the Philippines and Indonesia.

Law No. 2 of 1973 concerning Approval to Amendment to Article VI of the Statute of International Atomic Energy Agency.

Law No. 36 of 2008 concerning Income Tax.

Law No. 28 of 2009 concerning Local Tax and Retribution.

Law No. 17 of 2006 concerning Custom Duties.

SUPREME COURT

MA, PT. Nizwar v. Navigation Maritime Bulgare (NMB) case, No. 2944 K/Pdt/1983.

MA, Pam Ngoc Tam case, No. 1281 K/Pid.Sus/2008.

MA, Wen Ken Drug case, No. 106 PK/Pdt .Sus /2011.

CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

MK, case No. 20/PUU-V/2007, Judicial Review of Law No. 22 of 2001 concerning Oil and Gas.

MK, case No. 21/PUU-VI/2008, Judicial Review of Law No. 2/Pnps/1964 concerning the Methods of Capital Punishment.

MK, case No. 33/PUU-IX/2011, 20 July 2011.

MK, case No. 065/PUU-II/2004, Judicial Review of Law No. 26 of 2000 on Human Rights Court.

MK, case No. 140/PUU-VII/2009, Judicial Review of Law No. 1/PNPS/65 on Blasphemy Law.

HIGH COURT

PT Pontianak, Le Van Thong case, No. 104/Pid.Sus/2012, 11; MA, Vuong Van Tuan case, No. 162/ Pid.Sus/2011/ PT.PTK.

TABLE OF TREATIES AND RELATED DOCUMENTS

ASEAN Charter.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in armed conflict adopted in 2000.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography adopted in 2000.

Committee on the Rights of The Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Indonesia, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.23, 7 July 2003, para. 26.

Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.23, 7 July 2003, para. 25.

Committee on the Rights of The Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Indonesia, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.223, 26 February 2004, para. 13-15.

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Seventy-first session, Geneva, 30 July-18 August 2007, UN Doc. CERD/C/IDN/CO/3, 2.

Committee on the Rights of the Child, 31 October 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/IDN/3-4, para. 4.

UN Doc. CCPR/C/IDN/Q/1/Add.1, 28 June 2013, para. 1-2.


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