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Abstract

ABSTRAK
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji bagaimana ketentuan WTO memberikan perlindungan terhadap lingkungan, dan bagaimana solusi atas multitafsir aturan-aturan WTO terkait dengan perlindungan lingkungan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian hukum normatif. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder yang meliputi bahan hukum primer, bahan hukum sekunder, dan bahan hukum tersier. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan library research, sedangkan teknik analisis data menggunakan penafsiran hukum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada beberapa ketentuan WTO yang mengatur tentang perlindungan lingkungan, khususnya terkait dengan akses pasar. Aturan tersebut adalah: (1) standardisasi internasional, aturan teknis, dan standar teknis; (2) aturan pengecualian Pasal XX GATT 1994; dan (3) eco-label. Namun demikian, dalam implementasi, aturan ini ditafsirkan secara berbeda-beda oleh negara anggota WTO sehingga menyebabkan timbulnya sengketa. Bahkan, bagi negara miskin dan berkembang, aturan-aturan ini dianggap sebagai proteksi terselubung negara maju atas pasar dan produk nasional mereka. Sebagai penyelesaian atas masalah ini, maka diperlukan penafsiran yang bijaksana dari negara anggota WTO dengan berdasarkan pada kemampuan masing-masing negara. Bahkan Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) WTO juga harus memberikan penafsiran yang proporsional dan berkeadilan jika perbedaan penafsiran diantara negara anggota WTO ini kemudian menimbulkan sengketa dan masuk ke lembaga tersebut.
Kata kunci: perdagangan internasional; perlindungan lingkungan; world trade organization.


ABSTRACT
This research aims to examine on how the provisions of the WTO provide protection for the environment, and explores elucidations to multiple interpretations of WTO rules on environmental protection. This research constitutes a normative legal research. The data used are secondary data containing primary legal materials, secondary dan tertiary legal ones. The technique of conveying data uses library research, while the technique of data analysis uses legal interpretation. The results of the study denote that many WTO provisions provide environmental protection, specifically related to market access. Those rules are: (1) international standardization, technical rules, and technical standards; (2) General Exception of Article XX of GATT 1994; and (3) eco-labeling. However, in implementation, these rules were opposed differently by WTO member countries so that leading to disputes. Moreover, for least-developed and developing countries, these rules are considered as hidden protection of developed countries for their domestic markets and products. As a solution, a challenging interpretation of the WTO member countries is needed with the capabilities of each country. Even the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of WTO should also provide a proportional and fair interpretation if the multiple interpretation between the WTO member countries then cause a disputes.
Keywords: environmental protection; international trade; world trade organization.

Keywords

perdagangan internasional perlindungan lingkungan world trade organization

Article Details

How to Cite
Muslimah, S., & Latifah, E. (2022). PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL DAN PERLINDUNGAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP: SEBUAH “TRADE-OFF” PADA SISTEM WTO YANG MEMERLUKAN PENYELESAIAN. Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum, 6(2), 273-294. https://doi.org/10.23920/jbmh.v6i2.689

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