Framing The Responsibility of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on Space Technology in International Law

Main Article Content

Natalia Yeti Puspita
Natasha Gusti Wahyu Puspitasari Boydston


Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have gained popularity as a way to use resources and expertise from the private sector to support governmental space activities. In the event of a space-related incident, the division of duties and liabilities between public and private partners may be complicated. Clarifying the division of duties and liabilities between public and private actors is necessary given the rising participation of private companies in space activities.. With the growing involvement of private entities in space activities, there is a need to clarify the allocation of responsibilities and liabilities between public and private actors. Who is held responsible when a private company causes a technological disaster strike? On what basis can the responsibility be made, understood from international law? The research is normative legal research, where the data is collected through a statutory and case approach. The study results show that Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in outer space activities raise complex questions regarding responsibility. Responsibility refers to the Liability Convention on the Outer Space Treaty. The treaty emphasizes that states bear international responsibility for their national activities in outer space, including those conducted by private entities under their jurisdiction. However, the treaty does not explicitly address the specific responsibilities of private actors. Private companies only bear indirect international responsibility. PPPs need to consider the notion of shared responsibility, which acknowledges the contributions of both public and private actors and emphasizes cooperation and transparency

Article Details

How to Cite
Puspita, N. Y., & Boydston, N. G. W. P. (2023). Framing The Responsibility of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on Space Technology in International Law . Padjadjaran Journal of International Law, 7(2), 172 - 192.


Amelia, Riza. “State Obligations related to the Launch of Objects into Outer Space Under International Law”. Lampung Journal of International Law Vol. 2, No. 2 2020
Amiruddin, Pengantar Metode Penelitian Hukum, Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Press, 2004.
Arms Control Association, “the Outer Space Treaty at a Glance”,
Asian Development Bank, “Public Private Partnership”, Handbook, 1,
Batjargal, Temulin and Zhang, Mengzhong. “Review of Key Challenges in Public-Private Partnership Implementation”. Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development. Vol 5. No. 2. 2021.
BBC, “Virgin Galatic Signs Spaceflight deal with US Authority”, 2014,, 1 March 2023, and see also Bharat Madan and Daphne halkias, “Virgin Galactic’s NASA Partnership and Space Tourism-A Teaching Case”, Ecole des Ponts Business School, 2020,, accessed 1 March 2023.
BBC, “Virgin Galatic Spacecraft Crash Kills Pilot”, 2014,, accessed 1 March 2023.
Carbonara, Nunzia and Pellegrino, Roberta, “the Role of Public Private Partnerships in Fostering Innovation, Construction Management and Economics. Vol 38, No. 10. 2019.
Center for Space Policy and Strategy. “Public-Private Partnership in Space”. 2018
Cheng, Bin, “International Responsibility and Liability of States for National Activities in Outer Space, Especially by Non-governmental Entities”. 1997.
Christol, Carl Q. “International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects”. The American Journal of International Law Vol 74, No. 2. 1980.
Davenport, Christian. “NASA Looks to Private Sector for Successor to the International Space Station”. 2022.
de Tagle, Gonzalo Sanchez. “the Objective International Responsibility of States in the Inter-American Human Rights System”. Mexican Law Review. Vol 7. No. 2. 2015.
European Space Policy Institute. “ The Rise of Private Actors in the Space Sector”, Executive Summary. 2017., accessed 1 April 2023.
Ferreira-Synman, Anel. “The environmental responsibility of states for space debris and the implications for developing countries in Africa”. The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa. Vol 46, No. 1. 2013.
Frackiewcs, Martin. “Virgin Galatic’s Role in Space Tourism Regulation”. TS2. 2023., 1 March 2023.
Frankowski, Pawel, “Outer Space and Private Companies”. Politeja Journal. Vol 5. No. 50. 2017.
Hashimoto, Masafumi. “The responsibility of PPPs in space activities is an issue that has received considerable attention in recent years, both from policymakers and legal scholars”. 2009.
Howell, Elizabeth. “SpaceX’s Dragon: First Private Spacecraft to Reach the Space Station”. 2020.
IRALR. “State Responsibility in International Law”. Indian Review of Advanced Legal Research. 2021.
ISS National Laboratory, “ Public Private Partnerships in Space”,,
Jones, Karen L., “Public-Private Partnership: Considerations for the New Space Age”. The New Space Age: Beyond Global Order. Fall 2021. Perry world House., accessed 20 April 2023.
Jones, Karen L., “Public-Private Partnership: Stimulating Innovation in the Space Sector”. The Aerospace Corporation. 2018.
JSC SMA Flight Safety Office. “Significant Incidents & Close Calls in Human”. accessed 1 April 2023.
Kehrer, Trevor. “Closing the Liability Loophole: The Liability Convention and the Future of Conflict in Space”. Chicago Journal of International Law. Vol 20. No. 1. 2019.
Kok, Erik, “Indirect Responsibility in the Contemporary Law of State Responsibility”. Prufrock Publishing. the Netherlands. 2018.
Kurniawan, Wahyu, et.all. “The Role of Law in Public Private Partnership: Indonesia”. Journal of management Information and Decision Science. Vol 24. No. 6 2021.
Lyall, Francis and Larsen, Paul B. “Space Law: a Treatise”. Adelaide Law Review. Vol 39. 2018.
Martinez, Peter. “Development of an International Compendium of Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities.” Space Policy. 2018.
Marzuki, Peter Mahmud. Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Kencana. 2005.
Nolkaemper ,Andre and Jacobs, Dov. “Shared Responsibility in International Law: A Conceptual Framework”. Michigan Journal of International Law. Vol 34. No. 2. 2013.
Nolkaemper, Andre, “Guiding Principles on Shared Responsibility in International Law”, European Journal of International Law. Vol 31, No. 1 2020.
Palmroth, M,.et.all, “Toward Sustainable Use of Space: Economic, Technological, and Legal Perspectives. Space Policy Journal 57, (2021): 11-14.
Pellet, Alain. The Law Of International Responsibility Oxford Commentaries On International Law , Oxford, 2010.
Permatasari, Yunita, “The Urgency of Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities for Indonesia”. Global Stratergis-Cakra Studi Global Strategis.
Pratama, Garry Gumelar and Ruswandi, Nadhifathur Rochmah, “Space Insurance for Small Satellite Launch and Operation in the Setting of Indonesian Law”. Transnational Business Law Journal Vol. 2, No. 1 2021.
Rashed, Md. Abu, “Considerable Issues for Sustainable Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) Project, 2011,
Research and Market, “Tourism Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report by Type (Orbital, Sub-orbital), By End Use (Government, Commercial), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2023 – 2030”., accessed 1 May 2023.
Reuters, “SpaceX to Raise $750 Million At $137 Billion Valuation – CNBC”. accessed 1 May 2023.
Ricon, Paul. “Jeff Bezos Launches to Space aboard New Shepard Rocket Ship”. 2021,, accessed 3 May 2023.
Rotatori, Denise, Lee, Eun Jeong, and Sleeva, Sheryl. “The Evolution of the Workforce during the Fourth Industrial Revolution,” Human Resource Development International Vol 24, No. 1 2021.
Ruheni, Neni. “Direct International Responsibility of Non-Governmental Entities in the Utilization of Outer Space”. Padjajaran Jurnal Ilmu Hukum Vol 7, No. 1. 2020.
Sheetz, Michael. “Richard Branson Reaches Space on Virgin Galactic Flight”. 2021. accessed 3 May 2023.
Shelton, Dinah, “Reparation in the Law of State Responsibility”, Book Remedies in International Human Rights Law (2nd edn), 2006.
Soekanto, Soerjono and Mamuji, Sri. Metode Penelitian Normatif. Jakarta: Rajawali, 1995.
Suggono, Bambang. Metodologi Penelitian Hukum : Suatu Pengantar, cet.5, Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003.
The 1949 ICJ Rep. 4, 22, reprinted in 43 AJIL 558.
The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,
The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts, and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space,
The Associated Press. “3 visitors heading to the space station are paying $55M each, all meals included”. 2022., accessed 1 may 2023.
The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects,
The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space,
The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space,, accessed 5 May 2023.
The International Telecommunication Union. “Welcome to ITU-R”., accessed 5 May 2023.
The National Transportation “Safety Board, In-Flight Breakup During Test Flight Scaled Composites Spaceship Two, Aerospace Accident Report”, 2014., accessed 1 March 2023.
The Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines,
The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. “Legislative Guide on Public Private Partnership”. 2020. accessed 2 May 1023.
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, “the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies”,
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. “the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies”.
The World Bank. “Government Objectives: Benefits and Risks of PPPs”. 2020.
The World Bank. “Stakeholder Communication and Engagement”.
The Yearbook ILC 1973-II, p. 176, document A/9010/Rev.1, chap. II, sect. B, par. 11. Similar: Eight Report Ago (1979), especially p. 4 onwards.
TS2. “Virgin Galatic’s Efforts to Improve Space Tourism safety Standards”. 2023. accessed 5 May 2023.