South China Sea Dispute: What Alternative Solutions Can be Offered to the International Community?

Main Article Content

Muhammad Rafi Darajati
Adityo Darmawan Sudagung


As the busiest shipping route with a high value of resources under the sea, the South China Sea dispute is one of the unresolved problems in recent world affairs. Claimant states keep on defending their claim over the territory. Several critical factors of the disputed areas, such as the international trade perspective, natural resources aspects, and the security value, did affect the behaviour of such states. A lot of alternatives and means have been done to solve the case until the decision of PCA on the Philippine claim over China’s nine-dash line. Non-compliance response of China did raise another tension on the issue and complicated the resolution. We offered more alternatives to the international community to act, which combined peace-oriented bilateral and multilateral diplomacy and cooperation to force all claimants to agree on their maritime boundary, seeking mediation from states that can be trustworthy, international sanctions might be an option - but with a highly calculated decision, and stressing the compliance with legal action to gain trust from other parties. to support the diplomacy that takes place in the process. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Darajati, M. R., & Sudagung, A. D. (2023). South China Sea Dispute: What Alternative Solutions Can be Offered to the International Community?. Padjadjaran Journal of International Law, 7(2).


Amry, Ahmad Almaududy. "Laut Tiongkok Selatan: Problematika dan Prospek Penyelesaian Masalah.“." Opini Juris 16.93 (2014).
AP News. (2023, September 1). China’s new national map has set off a wave of protests. Why? AP News, available:
Arase, David. "Non-traditional security in China-ASEAN cooperation: The institutionalization of regional security cooperation and the evolution of East Asian regionalism." Asian Survey 50.4 (2010): 808-833
Beckman, Robert. "The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and the maritime disputes in the South China Sea." American Journal of International Law 107.1 (2013): 142-163.
Blaine, Mark Stephen. "The geography of territorial disputes in the South China Sea." Military geoscience: a multifaceted approach to the study of warfare. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022. 287-303.
Buszynski, Leszek, et al. The South China Sea and Australia’s regional security environment. Australia: Australian National University, 2009.
Buszynski, Leszek. "ASEAN, the declaration on conduct, and the South China Sea." Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 25.3 (2003): 343-362.
Chang, Yen-Chiang. "Taiwanese position in the south china sea dispute: Before and after the permanent court of arbitration award." JE Asia & Int'l L. 9 (2016): 467
Cheeppensook, Kasira. "ASEAN in the South China Sea conflict, 2012–2018: A lesson in conflict transformation from normative power Europe." International Economics and Economic Policy 17.3 (2020): 747-764.
Dar, Ku Boon. "THE SOUTH CHINA SEA DISPUTE AND SINO-VIETNAMESE RECONCILIATION." Journal of International Studies 19.1 (2023): 37-59.
De Castro, Renato Cruz. "The limits of intergovernmentalism: The Philippines’ changing strategy in the South China Sea dispute and its impact on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)." Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 39.3 (2020): 335-358.
Dikarev, Andrey, and Alexander Lukin. "Russia’s approach to South China Sea territorial dispute: it’s only business, nothing personal." The Pacific Review 35.4 (2022): 617-646.
Djalal, Hasjim. "Indonesia and the South China Sea Initiative." Ocean Development & International Law 32.2 (2001): 97-103.
Emmers, Ralf. "The changing power distribution in the South China Sea: Implications for conflict management and avoidance." Political Science 62.2 (2010): 118-131.
Emmers, Ralf. "ASEAN's search for neutrality in the South China Sea." Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 2.1 (2014): 61-77.
Fong, Yang Lai, Ramachandran Ponnan, and Antoon De Rycker. "Different countries, different perspectives: A comparative analysis of the South China Sea disputes coverage by Malaysian and Chinese newspapers." China Report 56.1 (2020): 39-59.
Gao, Zhiguo. "The South China Sea: From Conflict to Cooperation?." Ocean Development & International Law 25.3 (1994): 345-359.
Guo, Lei, Kate Mays, and Jianing Wang. "Whose story wins on twitter? Visualizing the South China Sea dispute." Journalism Studies 20.4 (2019): 563-584.
Hongfang, Shen. "south China sea issue in China-aseaN relations: an alternative approach to ease the tension." International Journal of China Studies 2.3 (2011): 585-600.
Hu, Le. "Examining ASEAN’s effectiveness in managing South China Sea disputes." The Pacific Review 36.1 (2023): 119-147.
Ibarra, Edcel John A. "Issue-Based Cooperation on Conflict Resolution in the South China Sea." The Journal of Territorial and Maritime Studies 9.1 (2022): 97-115.
Joyner, Christopher C. "The Spratly Islands dispute: rethinking the interplay of law, diplomacy, and geo-politics in the South China Sea." The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 13.2 (1998): 193-236.
Kaplan, Robert D. "The South China Sea is the future of conflict." Foreign Policy 188 (2011): 76.
Liu, Charles. "Chinses Sovereignty and Joint Development: A Pragmatic Solution to the Spratly Islands Dispute." Loy. LA Int'l & Comp. LJ 18 (1995): 865.
Mandagie, Mike Natanael Norend, and Angel Damayanti. "The Battle of the US and China in Becoming Hegemon Through South China Sea." IJRPR International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews 3.10 (2022): 1637-1644.
Meyer, Patrik Kristhope, Achmad Nurmandi, and Agustiyara Agustiyara. "Indonesia’s swift securitization of the Natuna Islands how Jakarta countered China’s claims in the South China Sea." Asian Journal of Political Science 27.1 (2019): 70-87.
Muhammad, Simela Victor. "Kepentingan China dan Posisi ASEAN dalam Sengketa Laut China Selatan." Info Singkat Hubungan Internasional 4.08 (2012).
Mogul, Rhea. (2023, August 31). China’s new national map has angered its neighbors. CNN.
Mustaza, Siti Noralia, and Mohd Irwan Syazli Saidin. "ASEAN, China and the South China Sea territorial disputes: Analysis of conflict management strategies." Intellectual Discourse 28.2 (2020): 577-598.
Nair, Nishant. "China in South China Sea: Evolving geopolitical interests and opportunism." Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India 18.2 (2022): 58-70.
Nguyen, Dong Manh. "Settlement of disputes under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: The case of the South China Sea dispute." U. Queensland LJ 25 (2006): 145.
Odgaard, Liselotte. "The South China Sea: ASEAN’s Security Concerns about China." Security Dialogue 34.1 (2003): 11-24
Patrick, I. (2023, September 6). US views China map claims over South China Sea, disputed Indian areas as ‘unlawful’: State Department |. South China Morning Post.
Peng, Nian, and Chow Bing Ngeow. "Managing the South China Sea dispute: Multilateral and bilateral approaches." Ocean Development & International Law 53.1 (2022): 37-59.
Pietrasiak, Małgorzata. "The ASEAN’s Attitude to the South China Sea Dispute after the Verdict of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in the Hague." Przegląd Strategiczny 10.13 (2020): 215-227.
Prabowo, E. Estu. "KEBIJAKAN DAN STRATEGI PERTAHANAN INDONESIA (Studi Kasus Konflik Di Laut Cina Selatan)." Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional 19.3 (2013): 118-129.
Prawira, Muhammad Rizky. "South China Sea Dispute." Dinamika Global: Jurnal Ilmu Hubungan Internasional 3.02 (2018): 35-54.
Purba, K. (2023). Jakarta’s pollution and China’s new map haunt ASEAN Summit. The Jakarta Post.
Quyet, Nguyen Huu. "CHINESE STRATEGY IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA: A Growing Quest for Vital Economic and Strategic Interests." World Affairs (2023): 00438200231181141
Raharjo, Sandy Nur Ikfal. "Peran Indonesia Dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa Laut Tiongkok Selatan." Jurnal Penelitian Politik 11.2 (2016)
Raymond, Mark, and David A. Welch. "What’s Really Going On in the South China Sea?." Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 41.2 (2022): 214-239.
Simon, Sheldon W. "Conflict and diplomacy in the South China Sea." Asian Survey 52.6 (2012): 995-1018.
Sison III, Maximo Paulino T. "Universalizing the law of the sea in the South China Sea dispute." Ocean Development & International Law 49.2 (2018): 157-175.
Strating, Rebecca. "Norm contestation, statecraft and the South China Sea: defending maritime order." The Pacific Review 35.1 (2022): 1-31.
Song, Yann-huei, and Stein Tønnesson. "The impact of the law of the sea convention on conflict and conflict management in the South China Sea." Ocean Development & international law 44.3 (2013): 235-269.
Storey, Ian. "Japan’s maritime security interests in Southeast Asia and the South China Sea dispute." Political science 65.2 (2013): 135-156.
Sudira, I. Nyoman. "Konflik Laut Cina Selatan dan Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia ke Amerika dan Eropa." Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional 10.2 (2014).
Sukarno, Sukarno. "Revealing Representation of China and America by the Media of CNBC Indonesia Relating to South China Sea Conflict." International Journal of Language and Literary Studies 4.2 (2022): 189-204.
Sumadinata, Widya Setiabudi. "Analysis of the AUKUS Agreement on Security in the South China Sea Region." Neo Journal of economy and social humanities 1.4 (2022): 265-271
Thayer, Carlyle A. "ASEAN, China and the code of conduct in the South China Sea." The SAIS Review of International Affairs 33.2 (2013): 75-84.
Thayer, Carlyle A. "Vietnam’s strategy of ‘cooperating and struggling’with China over maritime disputes in the South China Sea." Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs 3.2 (2016): 200-220.
Trystanto, Trystanto. "Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of the ASEAN-China Code of Conduct on the South China Sea in Constraining Chinese Aggressive Actions." Padjadjaran Journal of International Law 6.2 (2022): 136-159.
United Nations Charter
United Nations on the Law of the Sea 1982.
Vuković, Siniša, and Paul-Jakob Vuković. "China's Behavior and Ambitions to Become a Norm-maker in the South China Sea Dispute." Asian Perspective 47.2 (2023): 247-265.
Wu, Shicun. "Preventing confrontation and conflict in the South China Sea." China International Strategy Review 2.1 (2020): 36-47.
Yee, Andy. "Maritime territorial disputes in East Asia: A comparative analysis of the South China Sea and the East China Sea." Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 40.2 (2011): 165-193.
Zhang, Jian. "China’s growing assertiveness in the South China Sea: a strategic shift?." Buszynski and Roberts, The South China Sea and Australia’s Regional Security Environment (2013): 19.
Zhou, L. (2023, September 6). China’s new map has riled the region, with ‘collective concern’ over its claims. South China Morning Post.
Zou, Yizheng. "China and Indonesia's responses to maritime disputes in the South China Sea: forming a tacit understanding on security." Marine Policy 149 (2023): 105502.